A TRIBUTE TO
SHERBURNE FRIEND COOK, 1896-1974
Sheilagh T. Brooks
|This article originally appeared in The Journal of California Anthropology, Vol. 3, No. 1, Summer 1976. Reprinted with permission.|
S(herburne) F(riend) Cook became well known in anthropology, particularly archaeology and physical anthropology, through his research interests in the physiology and morbidity of aboriginal populations in both California and Mesoamerica. His recent death is a loss to many aspects of the field of physiology, but especially so to anthropologists who used his numerous papers and articles on the biochemical and physical composition of archaeological sites, the statistical and demographic analyses of causes of death of post-European contact American aboriginal populations and his theoretical concepts about the microanatomy of bone.
S.F. Cook was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, December 31, 1896, studied at Harvard University both as a graduate and undergraduate student, acquiring his A.B. in 1919, A.M. in 1923, and Ph.D. in physiology in 1925. After a brief time teaching as an instructor at Harvard, he joined the Physiology Department at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1928. He remained at Berkeley as a professor and later chairman of the department until his retirement in 1966.
It may have been his interest in environmental physiology, which has cited in a biographical listing for American Men and Women of Science (Vol. 1, 1971, p. 1154), which led to his collaboration with R.F. Heizer and Adan Treganza on the physical and biochemical analyses of the midden composition of archaeological sites in Central California. Cook's contribution to the anthropological knowledge of the effects of European contact in the form of diseases, deaths from excessive punishments of California aboriginal populations, is currently considered so pertinent to the fields of archaeology and ethnology that it was recently proposed that a volume of his collected papers on this subject be prepared for re-publication. His productivity and research were continuously expanding into new concepts or proposals. It was he who suggested the term "palaeodemography" for investigation into the dynamics of ancient populations (Jarcho 1966), now an important aspect of the physical anthropological approach to archaeologically recovered skeletal material in conjunction with palaeopathology and palaeoepidemiology.
It was my privilege to work for and with S.F. Cook from 1959 to 1963 as an assistant during his research into the microanatomy of bone and the cause-and-effect relationships of permineralization or fossilization on bone. This was at a time well before "affirmative action," but Cook was totally uninterested in whether his staff was male or female. His only concern was their competence, and our particular research project happened to be completely staffed with women. Although the ideas for the major research emanated from Cook, independent projects were totally acceptable for experimentation, and publications included as authors the names of all concerned, whether students, faculty, or staff (another rare trait, especially at the University of California, at that time).
Cook's conversations were fascinating, ranging widely on a variety of subjects relevant to his listeners and stimulated additional ideas and experimentation. I remember one casual comment in a discussion on California archaeological midden size which is as intriguing today as it was ten years ago (and still not fully explored): the size of a midden will depend on how far the oldest woman will walk to dump her garbage! His research into anthropological problems continues to be significant, and those of us who had the pleasure of collaborating with him will always benefit from the close contact with is provocative and productive ideas.
American Men and Women of Science. 1971. Twelfth Edition, Vol. 1. New York and London: Jacques Cattell Press/R.R. Bowker.
Jarcho, Saul, ed. 1966. Human Palaeopathology. Proceedings of a Symposium on Human Palaeology held in Washington, D.C., January 14, 1965. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Who's Who in America. 1954. Volume 28, 1954-1955. Chicago, Marquis Who's Who.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF
SHERBURNE FRIEND COOK
The following bibliography is based on the one which appeared in The Journal of California Anthropology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1976:5-12. Those entries not pertaining to either California or anthropology have been deleted and a couple of missing entries have been added.
- Diseases of the Indians of Lower California in the Eighteenth Century. California and Western Medicine 43:432-434.
- California's First Medical Survey: Report of Surgeon General José Benites. California and Western Medicine 45:352-354.
- The Monterey Surgeons During the Spanish Period in California. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 5:43-72.
- The Extent and Significance of Disease Among the Indians of Baja California, 1697-1773. Ibero-Americana 12.
- Smallpox in Spanish and Mexican California, 1770-1845. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 7:153-191.
- The Smallpox Epidemic of 1797 in Mexico. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 7:937-969.
- Population Trends Among the California Mission Indians. Ibero-Americana 17.
- The Hunger Hospital in Guadalajara, An Experiment in Medical Relief. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 8:533-545.
- The Mechanism and Extent of Dietary Adaptation Among Certain Groups of California and Nevada Indians. Ibero-Americana 18.
- Francisco Xavier Balmis and the Introduction of Vaccination to Latin America. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 11:543-560.
- The Population of Mexico in 1793. Human Biology 14:499-515.
- Migration and Urbanization of the Indians of California. Human Biology 15:33-45.
- Racial Fusion Among the California and Nevada Indians. Human Biology 15:153-165.
- The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization: I. Ibero-Americana 21.
- The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization: II. Ibero-Americana 22.
- The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization: III. Ibero-Americana 23.
- The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization: IV. Ibero-Americana 24.
- Demographic Consequences of European Contact with Primitive Peoples. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 237:107-111.
- A Reconsideration of Shell Mounds with Respect to Population and Nutrition. American Antiquity 12:51-53.
- The Incidence and Significance of Disease Among the Aztecs and Related Tribes. Hispanic American Historical Review 26:320-335.
- Human Sacrifice and Warfare as Factors in the Demography of Pre-Colonial Mexico. Human Biology 18:81-102.
- The Interrelation of Population, Food Supply and Building in Pre-Conquest Central Mexico. American Antiquity 13:45-52.
- Survivorship in Aboriginal Populations. Human Biology 19:83-89.
- (with R.F. Heizer) The Quantitative Investigation of Aboriginal Sites: Analysis of Human Bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 5:201-220.
- (with A.E. Treganza) The Quantitative Investigation of Aboriginal Sites: Comparative Physical and Chemical Analysis of Two California Indian Mounds. American Antiquity 13:135-141.
- (with L.B. Simpson) The Population of Central Mexico in the Sixteenth Century. Ibero-Americana 31.
- (with A.E. Treganza) The Quantitative Investigation of Aboriginal Sites: Complete Excavation with Physical and Archaeological Analysis of a Single Mound. American Antiquity 13:287-297.
- The Historical Demography and Ecology of the Teotlalpan. Ibero-Americana 33.
- Soil Erosion and Population in Central Mexico. Ibero-Americana 34.
- (with R.F. Heizer) The Archaeology of Central California: A Comparative Analysis of Human Bone from Nine Sites. University of California Anthropological Records 12(2).
- (with A.E. Treganza) The Quantitative Investigation of Indian Mounds with Special Reference to the Relation of the Physical Components to the Probable Material Culture. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 40(5).
- Physical Analysis as a Method for Investigating Prehistoric Habitation Sites. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 7:2-5.
- The Fossilization of Human Bone: Calcium, Phosphate, and Carbonate. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 40(6).
- (with R.F. Heizer) The Physical Analysis of Nine Indian Mounds in the Lower Sacramento Valley. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 40(7).
- Chemical Analysis of Fossil Bone. In: Essays on Archaeological Methods, J.B. Griffin, ed. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers 8:73-84.
- (with R.F. Heizer) The Fossilization of Bone: Organic Components and Water. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 17:1-24.
- (with R.F. Heizer) Fluorine and Other Chemical Tests of Some North American Human and Fossil Bones. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 10:289-304.
- (with R.F. Heizer) The Present Status of Chemical Methods for Dating Prehistoric Bone. American Antiquity 18:354-358.
- (with R.F. Heizer) Archaeological Dating by Chemical Analysis of Bone. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 9:231-238.
- (with R.F. Heizer) "Capay Man," An Ancient Central California Indian Burial. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 22:24-26.
- (with R.F. Heizer) Comments on the Piltdown Remains. American Anthropologist 56:92-94.
- The Epidemic of 1830-1833 in California and Oregon. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 43(3).
- The Aboriginal Population of the San Joaquin Valley, California. University of California Anthropological Records 16(2).
- The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California. University of California Anthropological Records 16(3).
- (with R.F. Heizer) Some Aspects of the Quantitative Approach in Archaeology. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 12:229-248.
- (with A.B. Elsasser) Burials in Sand Mounds of the Delta Region of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 35:26-46.
- The Aboriginal Population of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. University of California Anthropological Records 16(4).
- (with H. Ezra) Amino Acids in Fossil Human Bone. Science 126:80.
- Analysis of Refuse Midden Material from Site Ven-62. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 37:40-41.
- (with W.W. Borah) The Rate of Population Change in Central Mexico. Hispanic American Historical Review 37:463-470.
- (with W.W. Borah) Price Trends of Some Basic Commodities in Central Mexico, 1531-1570. Ibero-Americana 40.
- Santa Maria Ixcatlán: Habitat, Population, Subsistence. Ibero-Americana 41.
- (with H. Ezra) Histology of Mammoth Bone. Science 129:465-466.
- (with R.F. Heizer) New Evidence of Antiquity of Tepexpan and Other Human Remains from the Valley of Mexico. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 15:36-42.
- (with R.F. Heizer) The Chemical Analysis of Fossil Bone: Individual Variation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 17:109-115.
- (with H. Ezra-Cohn) An Evaluation of the Fluorine Dating Method. b>Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 15:276-290.
- (co-editor, with R.F. Heizer) The Application of Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 28.
- Dating Prehistoric Bone by Chemical Analysis. In: The Application of Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, R.F. Heizer and S.F. Cook, eds. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 28.
- Reconstruction of Extinct Publications. Revista Mexicana de Estudios Anthropológicos 16:173-182.
- (with W.W. Borah) The Population of Central Mexico in 1548. Ibero-Americana 43.
- (with W.W. Borah) The Indian Population of Central Mexico, 1531-1610. Ibero-Americana 44.
- Colonial Expeditions to the Interior of California: Central Valley, 1800-1820. University of California Anthropological Records 16(6).
- (with S.T. Brooks and H. Ezra-Cohn) The Process of Fossilization. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 17:355-364.
- (with W.W. Borah) Sobre las Posibilidades de Hacer el Estudio del Mestizaje Sobre Una Base Demográfica. In El Mestizaje en la Historia de Ibero-Américana, pp. 64-72. México. D.F.: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia.
- Colonial Expeditions to the Interior of California: Central Valley, 1820-1840. University of California Anthropological Records 20(5).
- (with S.T. Brooks and H. Ezra-Cohn) Histological Studies on Fossil Bone. Journal of Paleontology 36:483-494.
- (with R.F. Heizer) Chemical Analysis of the Hotchkiss Site (CCo-138). University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 57(Part 1):1-24.
- (with W.W. Borah) La Despoblación del México Central en el Siglo XVI. Historia Mexicana 12:1-12. (Also published in English: New Demographic Research on the Sixteenth Century in Mexico. In: Latin American History: Essays on its Study and Teaching, 1898-1965. 2 vols. Howard F. Cline, ed., Vol. II, pp. 717-722. Austin: University of Texas Press.)
- (with H. Ezra-Cohn) A Comparison of Methods for Decalcifying Bone. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 10:560-562.
- (with W.W. Borah) The Aboriginal Population of Central Mexico on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest. Ibero-Americana 45.
- Erosion Morphology and Occupation History in Western Mexico. University of California Anthropological Records 17(3).
- (with W.W. Borah) Quelle fut la Stratification Sociale au Centre du Mexique Durant la Premiere Moitie du XVI Siecle? Annales: Exonomies, Societes, Civilizations 18:226-258.
- The Nature of Charcoal Excavated at Archaeological Sites. American Antiquity 29:514-517.
- The Aboriginal Population of Upper California. Actas y Memorias, XXXV Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Mexico, 1962, 3:397-403.
- (with R.F. Heizer) Studies on the Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Sites. University of California Publications in Anthropology 2.
- (with R.F. Heizer) The Quantitative Approach to the Relation Between Population and Settlement Size. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 64:1-97.
- (with W.W. Borah) Marriage and Legitimacy in Mexican Culture: Mexico and California. California Law Review 54:946-1008.
- (with W.W. Borah) On the Credibility of Contemporary Testimony on the Population of Mexico in the Sixteenth Century. Summa Anthropologia en Homenaja a Roberto J. Weitlaner, pp. 229-239. Instituto Nacional de Anthropologia e Historia. México.
- (with R.F. Heizer) Relationships Among Houses, Settlement Areas, and Population in Aboriginal California. In Settlement Archaeology, K.-C. Chang, ed., Chap. VI, pp. 79-116. Palo Alto: National Press Books.
- (with W.W. Borah) The Population of the Mixteca Alta, 1520-1960. Ibero-Americana 50.
- The Destruction of the California Indian. California Alumni Monthly 79:14-19.
- (with W.W. Borah) Conquest and Population: A Demographic Approach to Mexican Prehistory. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 113:177-183.
- Migration as a Factor in the History of Mexican Population: Sample Data. In Population and Economics, Paul Deprez, ed., pp. 279-302. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
- Las Migraciones en la Historia de la Población Mexicana. In Historia y Sociedad en el Munde de Habla Española. Homenaje a José Miranda. El Colegio de México, pp. 355-377.
- The California Indian and Anglo American Culture. In Ethnic Conflict in California History, Charles Wollenberg, ed., Chap. II, pp. 23-42. Los Angeles: Tinnon-Brown Co.
- (with W.W. Borah) Essays in Population History: Mexico and the Caribbean, Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- (with W.W. Borah) La Demografía Histórica de América Latina: Necesidades y Perspectivas. In Historia Mexicana 21:312-327. (Also appears in La Historia Económica en América Latina, 2 vols. México, D.F.: Secretaría de Educación Pública, 1972, II:82-99.)
- (with D.M. Howard) The Archaeology of the Hudson Mound. Monterey County Archaeological Society Quarterly 1(1).
- Can Pottery Residues be Used as an Index to Population? University of California, Contributions of the Archaeological Research Facility 14:17-39.
- Prehistoric Demography. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Modular Publications.
- Interracial Warfare and Population Decline Among the New England Indians. Ethnohistory 20:1-24.
- The Significance of Disease in the Extinction of the New England Indians. Human Biology 45:485-508.
- The Esselen: Territory, Villages, and Population. Monterey County Archaeological Society Quarterly 3(2): 1-11.
- The Esselen: Language and Culture. Monterey County Archaeological Society Quarterly 3(3): 1-10.
- (with W.W. Borah) Essays in Population History: Mexico and the Caribbean, Vol. II. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- The Stability of Indian Custom Marriage. The Indian Historian 7(3):33-34.
- Subsistence Ecology of Scovill. American Antiquity 40:354-356.
- The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- The Population of the California Indians, 1769-1970. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- The Indian Population of New England in the Seventeenth Century. University of California Publications in Anthropology 12.
- Historical Demography. In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 8, California, R.F. Heizer, vol. ed. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
- (with W.W. Borah) Essays in Population History: Mexico and the Caribbean, Vol. III. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Roman Catholic Missions in California and the Southwest. In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 4, History of Indian-White relations, Wilcomb E. Washburn, vol. ed. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
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